Encapsulation in C++

C++ is based on object-oriented programming concepts. Encapsulation is one of the important features of Object Oriented Programming. Encapsulation is defined as the process of combining data members and functions in a single unit.

Features of Encapsulation

  • In encapsulation, member variables of a class cannot be accessed from another class directly. Those member variables should only be accessible via functions.
  • In encapsulation, the functions which we create must only use member variables.
  • It increases the security of data.

Why Encapsulation?

  • Encapsulation helps to keep the related data and functions together, which makes our code cleaner and easy to read.
  • Encapsulation protects data from unauthorized access.
  • Encapsulation helps to control the modification of class data members.
  • Encapsulation helps to hide the data of class members from direct access by other classes by making the data private.

How to use Encapsulation in C++?

  • First make all the data members of a class private.
  • Then create public setter and getter functions for each data member in such a way that the set function sets the value of the data member and the get function gets the value of the data member.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Employee
    // data hidden from outside world
    double salary;

    // public function to set value
    void setSalary(double fulltime, double overtime)
        salary = fulltime + overtime;
    // public function to return value
    int getSalary()
        return salary;
int main()
    Employee employeeObj;
    employeeObj.setSalary(4500, 510.55);
    std::cout << "Employee salary is $";

    cout << employeeObj.getSalary();
    return 0;
Employee salary is $5010.55