How to Fix Python Error: string argument without an encoding

This error means you are trying to convert a string without specifying the encoding. To resolve this issue, add encoding as the second argument to bytes as shown in the examples below:

bytes("world", encoding = "utf-8") 
bytearray("world", encoding = "utf-8")  

str_text = "world"
x_bytes = str_text.encode("utf-8")

back_to_string = x_bytes.decode("utf-8")