How to Fix Python Error: string argument without an encoding

This error occurs when you attempt to convert a string without specifying the encoding. To resolve this issue, add the encoding as the second argument to bytes, as demonstrated in the examples below:

str_text = "world"

# example 1
a = bytes(str_text, encoding = "utf-8")

# example 2
b = bytearray(str_text, encoding = "utf-8")

# example 3
x_bytes = str_text.encode("utf-8")

# example 4
x_string = x_bytes.decode("utf-8")